“To quote Albert Einstein, the goal of education is ‘to produce independently thinking and acting individuals.’ The eventual goal of science education is to produce individuals capable of understanding and evaluating information that is, or purports to be, scientific in nature and of making decisions that incorporate that information appropriately and, furthermore, to produce a sufficient number and diversity of skilled and motivated future scientists, engineers, and other science-based professionals.”“Students who are proficient in science:

  1. Know, use, and interpret scientific explanations of the natural world
  2. Generate and evaluate scientific evidence and explanations
  3. Understand the nature and development of scientific knowledge
  4. Participate productively in scientific practices and discourse.”

Richard A. Duschl, Heidi A. Schweingruber, and Andrew W. Shouse. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8: National Academies Press, 2007.